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Scott Spence

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Data loading in SvelteKit

6 min read

With the recent changes to SvelteKit which has invalidated a lot of content already out there, I want to make some notes on how to load data in SvelteKit.

First up, if you weren’t aware, SvelteKit completely changed how file based routing is done. There’s a really comprehensive migration guide from Rich Harris and Simon H over on GitHub on it.

Page routing

If you don’t want the background on the route changes then the TL;DR, is here: Get set up.

I’ll quickly go over the new routing system, as it’s a bit different to what it was, what I’ll do is detail what the SvelteKit skeleton (created with the SvelteKit CLI command npm init svelte or pnpm create svelte) file structure looked like before and after.

I’ve removed a some of the other files that come with the skeleton for brevity.

Before

sveltekit-skeleton-example/
├─ src/
│  ├─ routes/
│  │  └─ index.svelte
│  └─ app.html
└─ package.json

And this is how it’s now structured.

After

sveltekit-skeleton-example/
├─ src/
│  ├─ routes/
│  │  └─ +page.svelte
│  └─ app.html
└─ package.json

Not a missive change, right? But let’s take a look at how routes were done vs how they are now. Let’s say there was several other routes about, blog, contact etc.

Before

sveltekit-skeleton-example/
├─ src/
│  ├─ routes/
│  │  └─ about.svelte
│  │  └─ blog.svelte
│  │  └─ contact.svelte
│  │  └─ index.svelte
│  └─ app.html
└─ package.json

This could also be done with a directory, which was my preferred way of grouping routes.

sveltekit-skeleton-example/
├─ src/
│  ├─ routes/
│  │  └─ about/
│  │  │  └─ index.svelte
│  │  └─ blog/
│  │  │  └─ index.svelte
│  │  └─ contact/
│  │  │  └─ index.svelte
│  │  └─ index.svelte
│  └─ app.html
└─ package.json

After

sveltekit-skeleton-example/
├─ src/
│  ├─ routes/
│  │  └─ about/
│  │  │  └─ +page.svelte
│  │  └─ blog/
│  │  │  └─ +page.svelte
│  │  └─ contact/
│  │  │  └─ +page.svelte
│  │  └─ +page.svelte
│  └─ app.html
└─ package.json

As always, people get mad when something changes. I was fine with the changes when they came along and had load of fun refactoring all my old projects to use the new system when it dropped.

Using +page.js|.ts

Before a +page.svelte file is loaded there may be some data needed for the page, like a list of products, or a list of blog posts. This is where data loading comes in.

A +page.svelte file can have a sibling +page.js file that runs a load function.

/** @type {import('./$types').PageLoad} */
export const load = async () => {
  return {
    greeting: 'Hello world!',
  }
}

The return of the value (greeting) form the load function is accessible to the +page.svelte file as a data prop. In Svelte props are received into components with export let.

<script>
  /** @type {import('./$types').PageData} */
  export let data;
</script>

<p>{data.greeting}</p>

Ok, so that data defined locally now I’ll take a look at getting some external data.

In the follwing example I’m using the CoinLore API to get the top 100 cryptocurrencies (which is the default request). It’s a fun API to play around with but for this example all I really need is some data from an external source.

SvelteKit builds on top of the Standard Web APIs and makes them available in the load function. You can see in the example here I’m destructuring out the fetch function from the context object that is available to the load function.

/** @type {import('./$types').PageLoad} */
export const load = async ({ fetch }) => {
  const res = await fetch('https://api.coinlore.com/api/tickers/')
  const { data } = await res.json()
  return {
    currencies: data,
  }
}

I’m labelling the return value as currencies this is then shown in the data being passed to +page.svelte.

<script>
  /** @type {import('./$types').PageData} */
  export let data;
</script>

<pre>{JSON.stringify(data, null, 2)}</pre>

Resulting data being displayed on the page is something like this:

{
  "currencies": [
    {
      "id": "90",
      "symbol": "BTC",
      "name": "Bitcoin",
      "nameid": "bitcoin"
    },
    {
      "id": "80",
      "symbol": "ETH",
      "name": "Ethereum",
      "nameid": "ethereum"
    }
  ]
}

Two or more endpoints?

I detailed this before in a post on how to Fetch data from two or more endpoints in SvelteKit with Promise.all.

If you don’t like the way you have to put the calls into an array then adding them to their own variables is also fine.

/** @type {import('./$types').PageLoad} */
export const load = async ({ fetch }) => {
  const fetchCoins = async () => {
    const res = await fetch('https://api.coinlore.com/api/tickers/')
    const { data } = await res.json()
    return data
  }
  const fetchCharacters = async () => {
    const res = await fetch('https://rickandmortyapi.com/graphql/', {
      method: 'POST',
      headers: {
        'Content-Type': 'application/json',
      },
      body: JSON.stringify({
        query: `
          query AllCharacters {
            characters {
              results {
                name
                id
                image
              }
            }
          }
      `,
    })
    const {
      data: {
        characters: { results },
      },
    } = await res.json()
    return results
  }

  return {
    currencies: fetchCoins(),
    characters: fetchCharacters(),
  }
}

I’ve added an additional call to the page load function to get the characters from the Rick and Morty GraphQL API then calling the function for each of them.

Using +page.server.js|.ts

Say if you have an API key that you don’t want to expose on the client (the browser) then you can use a +page.server.js file.

In here I can make a call to an API and pass in a secret key that I have defined in a .env file.

import { SECRET_TOKEN } from '$env/static/private'

/** @type {import('./$types').PageServerLoad} */
export const load = async ({ fetch }) => {
  // this is only logged out on the server
  console.log('=====================')
  console.log(SECRET_TOKEN)
  console.log('=====================')
  const fetchCoins = async () => {
    const res = await fetch('https://api.coinlore.com/api/tickers/')
    const { data } = await res.json()
    return data
  }

  return {
    currencies: fetchCoins(),
  }
}

The CoinLore API doesn’t require a key so I’m just using a dummy token defined in my .env file.

You can find out more about that in the SvelteKit Environment Variables with the SvelteKit $env Module post I did a while back.

Conclusion

In summary, use +page.js or +page.ts to load data for a page where there’s no need for authentication, or if you’re not concerned about any credentials being exposed on the client. If you need to load data from an API that requires authentication where you want to keep credentials from the client then use +page.server.js or +page.server.ts.

That’s it for this post, I hope you found it useful.

Copyright © 2017 - 2022 - All rights reserved Scott Spence